docs.sheetjs.com/docz/docs/03-demos/42-engines/09-hermes.md

23 KiB
Raw Permalink Blame History

title sidebar_label description pagination_prev pagination_next
Sharing Sheets with Hermes C++ + Hermes Process structured data in C++ programs. Seamlessly integrate spreadsheets into your program by pairing Hermes and SheetJS. Handle the most complex files without breaking a sweat. demos/bigdata/index solutions/input

import current from '/version.js'; import Tabs from '@theme/Tabs'; import TabItem from '@theme/TabItem'; import CodeBlock from '@theme/CodeBlock';

Hermes is an embeddable JS engine written in C++.

SheetJS is a JavaScript library for reading and writing data from spreadsheets.

This demo uses Hermes and SheetJS to pull data from a spreadsheet and print CSV rows. We'll explore how to load SheetJS in a Hermes context and process spreadsheets from a C++ program.

The "Integration Example" section includes a complete command-line tool for reading data from files.

Integration Details

:::info pass

Many Hermes functions are not documented. The explanation was verified against commit 15b323d.

:::

:::danger pass

The main target for Hermes is React Native. At the time of writing, there was no official documentation for embedding the Hermes engine in C++ programs.

:::

Initialize Hermes

A Hermes engine instance is created with facebook::hermes::makeHermesRuntime:

std::unique_ptr<facebook::jsi::Runtime> rt(facebook::hermes::makeHermesRuntime());

Essential Objects

Hermes does not expose a console or global variable, but they can be synthesized from JS code in the runtime:

  • global can be obtained from a reference to this in an unbound function:
/* create global object */
var global = (function(){ return this; }).call(null);
  • console.log can be constructed from the builtin print function:
/* create a fake `console` from the hermes `print` builtin */
var console = { log: function(x) { print(x); } };

The code can be stored in a C string and evaluated using prepareJavascript to prepare code and evaluatePreparedJavascript to evaluate:

const char *init_code =
  /* create global object */
  "var global = (function(){ return this; }).call(null);"
  /* create a fake `console` from the hermes `print` builtin */
  "var console = { log: function(x) { print(x); } };"
  ;
auto src = std::make_shared<facebook::jsi::StringBuffer>(init_code);
auto js = rt->prepareJavaScript(src, std::string("<eval>"));
rt->evaluatePreparedJavaScript(js);

:::info Exception handling

Standard C++ exception handling patterns are used in Hermes integration code. The base class for Hermes exceptions is facebook::jsi::JSIException:

try {
  const char *init_code = "...";
  auto src = std::make_shared<facebook::jsi::StringBuffer>(init_code);
  auto js = rt->prepareJavaScript(src, std::string("<eval>"));
  rt->evaluatePreparedJavaScript(js);
} catch (const facebook::jsi::JSIException &e) {
  std::cerr << "JavaScript exception: " << e.what() << std::endl;
  return 1;
}

:::

Load SheetJS Scripts

SheetJS Standalone scripts can be parsed and evaluated in a Hermes context.

The main library can be loaded by reading the script from the file system and evaluating in the Hermes context.

:::note pass

There are nonstandard tricks to embed the entire script in the binary. There are language proposals such as #embed (mirroring the same feature in C23).

For simplicity, the examples read the script file from the filesystem.

:::

Reading scripts from the filesystem

For the purposes of this demo, the standard C <stdio.h> methods are used:

static char *read_file(const char *filename, size_t *sz) {
  FILE *f = fopen(filename, "rb");
  if(!f) return NULL;
  long fsize; { fseek(f, 0, SEEK_END); fsize = ftell(f); fseek(f, 0, SEEK_SET); }
  char *buf = (char *)malloc(fsize * sizeof(char));
  *sz = fread((void *) buf, 1, fsize, f);
  fclose(f);
  return buf;
}

// ...
  /* read SheetJS library from filesystem */
  size_t sz; char *xlsx_full_min_js = read_file("xlsx.full.min.js", &sz);

:::caution pass

For Windows applications, the string must be null-terminated:

/* Hermes-Windows requires the null terminator */
static char *read_file_null(const char *filename, size_t *sz) {
  FILE *f = fopen(filename, "rb");
  if(!f) return NULL;
  long fsize; { fseek(f, 0, SEEK_END); fsize = ftell(f) + 1; fseek(f, 0, SEEK_SET); }
  char *buf = (char *)malloc(fsize * sizeof(char));
  *sz = fread((void *) buf, 1, fsize, f);
  buf[fsize - 1] = 0;
  fclose(f);
  return buf;
}

// ...
  /* read SheetJS library from filesystem */
  size_t sz; char *xlsx_full_min_js = read_file_null("xlsx.full.min.js", &sz);

:::

Hermes Wrapper

Hermes does not provide a friendly way to prepare JavaScript code stored in a standard heap-allocated C string. Fortunately a wrapper can be created:

/* Unfortunately the library provides no C-friendly Buffer classes */
class CBuffer : public facebook::jsi::Buffer {
  public:
    CBuffer(const uint8_t *data, size_t size) : buf(data), sz(size) {}
    size_t size() const override { return sz; }
    const uint8_t *data() const override { return buf; }

  private:
    const uint8_t *buf;
    size_t sz;
};

// ...
  /* load SheetJS library */
  auto src = std::make_shared<CBuffer>(CBuffer((uint8_t *)xlsx_full_min_js, sz));

Evaluating SheetJS Library Code

The code wrapper can be "prepared" with prepareJavascript and "evaluated" with evaluatePreparedJavascript.

The second argument to preparedJavascript is a C++ std::string that holds the source URL. Typically a name like xlsx.full.min.js helps distinguish SheetJS library exceptions from other parts of the application.

  auto js = rt->prepareJavaScript(src, std::string("xlsx.full.min.js"));
  rt->evaluatePreparedJavaScript(js);

Testing

If the library is loaded, XLSX.version will be a string. This string can be pulled into the main C++ program.

The evaluatePreparedJavascript method returns a facebook::jsi::Value object that represents the result:

/* evaluate XLSX.version and capture the result */
auto src = std::make_shared<facebook::jsi::StringBuffer>("XLSX.version");
auto js = rt->prepareJavaScript(src, std::string("<eval>"));
facebook::jsi::Value jsver = rt->evaluatePreparedJavaScript(js);

The getString method extracts the string value and returns an internal string object (facebook::jsi::String). Given that string object, the utf8 method returns a proper C++ std::string that can be printed:

/* pull the version string into C++ code and print */
facebook::jsi::String jsstr = jsver.getString(*rt);
std::string cppver = jsstr.utf8(*rt);
std::cout << "SheetJS version " << cppver << std::endl;

Reading Files

Typically C++ code will read files and Hermes will project the data in the JS engine as an ArrayBuffer. SheetJS libraries can parse ArrayBuffer data.

Standard SheetJS operations can pick the first worksheet and generate CSV string data from the worksheet. Hermes provides methods to convert the JS strings back to std::string objects for further processing in C++.

:::note pass

It is strongly recommended to create a stub function to perform the entire workflow in JS code and pass the final result back to C++.

:::

Hermes Wrapper

Hermes supports ArrayBuffer but has no simple helper to read raw memory. Libraries are expected to implement MutableBuffer:

/* ArrayBuffer constructor expects MutableBuffer */
class CMutableBuffer : public facebook::jsi::MutableBuffer {
  public:
    CMutableBuffer(uint8_t *data, size_t size) : buf(data), sz(size) {}
    size_t size() const override { return sz; }
    uint8_t *data() override { return buf; }

  private:
    uint8_t *buf;
    size_t sz;
};

A facebook::jsi::ArrayBuffer object can be created using the wrapper:

/* load payload as ArrayBuffer */
size_t sz; char *data = read_file("pres.xlsx", &sz);
auto payload = std::make_shared<CMutableBuffer>(CMutableBuffer((uint8_t *)data, sz));
auto ab = facebook::jsi::ArrayBuffer(*rt, payload);

SheetJS Operations

In this example, the goal is to pull the first worksheet and generate CSV rows.

XLSX.read1 parses the ArrayBuffer and returns a SheetJS workbook object:

var wb = XLSX.read(buf);

The SheetNames property2 is an array of the sheet names in the workbook. The first sheet name can be obtained with the following JS snippet:

var first_sheet_name = wb.SheetNames[0];

The Sheets property3 is an object whose keys are sheet names and whose corresponding values are worksheet objects.

var first_sheet = wb.Sheets[first_sheet_name];

The sheet_to_csv utility function4 generates a CSV string from the sheet:

var csv = XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(first_sheet);

C++ integration code

:::note pass

The stub function will be passed an ArrayBuffer object:

function(buf) {
  /* `buf` will be an ArrayBuffer */
  var wb = XLSX.read(buf);
  return XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(wb.Sheets[wb.SheetNames[0]]);
}

:::

The result after evaluating the stub is a facebook::jsi::Value object:

/* define stub function to read and convert first sheet to CSV */
auto src = std::make_shared<facebook::jsi::StringBuffer>(
  "(function(buf) {"
    "var wb = XLSX.read(buf);"
    "return XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(wb.Sheets[wb.SheetNames[0]]);"
  "})"
);
auto js = rt->prepareJavaScript(src, std::string("<eval>"));
facebook::jsi::Value funcval = rt->evaluatePreparedJavaScript(js);

To call this function, the opaque Value must be converted to a Function:

facebook::jsi::Function func = func.asObject(*rt).asFunction(*rt);

The Function exposes a call method to perform the function invocation. The stub accepts an ArrayBuffer argument:

/* call stub function and capture result */
facebook::jsi::Value csv = func.call(*rt, ab);

In the same way the library version string was pulled into C++ code, the CSV data can be captured using getString and utf8 methods:

/* interpret as utf8 */
std::string str = csv.getString(*rt).utf8(*rt);
std::cout << str << std::endl;

Complete Example

The "Integration Example" covers a traditional integration in a C++ application, while the "CLI Test" demonstrates other concepts using the hermes CLI tool.

Integration Example

:::note Tested Deployments

This demo was tested in the following deployments:

Architecture Git Commit Date
darwin-x64 15b323d 2024-03-15
darwin-arm 2b4f949 2023-10-18
linux-x64 d217af8 2024-03-21
linux-arm 84732b3 2023-12-01

The main Hermes source tree does not have Windows support. The hermes-windows fork, which powers React Native for Windows, does have built-in support5

Architecture Git Commit Date
win10-x64 240573e 2024-03-24

The "Windows Example" covers hermes-windows.

:::

  1. Install dependencies
Installation Notes (click to show)

The official guidance6 has been verified in macOS and HoloOS (Linux).

On macOS:

brew install icu4c cmake ninja

On HoloOS (and other Arch Linux distros):

sudo pacman -Syu cmake git ninja icu python zip readline

On Debian and Ubuntu:

sudo apt install cmake git ninja-build libicu-dev python zip libreadline-dev
  1. Make a project directory:
mkdir sheetjs-hermes
cd sheetjs-hermes
  1. Download the Makefile:
curl -LO https://docs.sheetjs.com/hermes/Makefile
  1. Download sheetjs-hermes.cpp:
curl -LO https://docs.sheetjs.com/hermes/sheetjs-hermes.cpp
  1. Build the library (this is the init target):
make init

:::caution pass

In some test runs, the build failed due to Ninja issues:

CMake Error at CMakeLists.txt:64 (project):
  Running

   '/usr/local/lib/depot_tools/ninja' '--version'

  failed with:

   depot_tools/ninja.py: Could not find Ninja in the third_party of the current project, nor in your PATH.

This is due to a conflict with the Ninja version that ships with depot_tools.

Since depot_tools typically is added before other folders in the system PATH variable, it is strongly recommended to rename the ninja binary, build the Hermes libraries, and restore the ninja binary:

# Rename `ninja`
mv /usr/local/lib/depot_tools/ninja /usr/local/lib/depot_tools/ninja_tmp
# Build Hermes
make init
# Restore `ninja`
mv /usr/local/lib/depot_tools/ninja_tmp /usr/local/lib/depot_tools/ninja

:::

:::note pass

In some tests, the build failed with a message referencing a missing header:

hermes/API/hermes/inspector/chrome/tests/SerialExecutor.cpp:34:16: note: std::runtime_error is defined in header <stdexcept>; did you forget to #include <stdexcept>?

This error affects the official Hermes releases!

The fix is to manually add a #include statement in the corresponding header file (API/hermes/inspector/chrome/tests/SerialExecutor.h in the repo):

#include <memory>
#include <mutex>
#if !defined(_WINDOWS) && !defined(__EMSCRIPTEN__)
// highlight-next-line
#include <stdexcept>
#include <pthread.h>
#else
#include <thread>

:::

  1. Build the application:
make sheetjs-hermes
  1. Download the SheetJS Standalone script and the test file. Save both files in the project directory:

{\ curl -LO https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-${current}/package/dist/xlsx.full.min.js curl -LO https://sheetjs.com/pres.numbers}

  1. Copy the libhermes and libjsi libraries into the current folder:
cp ./build_release/API/hermes/libhermes.so .
cp ./build_release/jsi/libjsi.so .
cp ./build_release/API/hermes/libhermes.dylib .
cp ./build_release/jsi/libjsi.dylib .
  1. Run the application:
./sheetjs-hermes pres.numbers

If successful, the program will print the library version number and the contents of the first sheet as CSV rows.

Windows Example

  1. Install dependencies.
Installation Notes (click to show)

The build sequence requires Python, which can be installed from the official Windows installer7.

Visual Studio with "Desktop development with C++" workload and Cmake must be installed8. In addition, the following Spectre-mitigated libs must be added:

  • MSVC C++ x64/x86 Spectre-mitigated libs (Latest)
  • C++ ATL for latest build tools with Spectre Mitigations (x86 & x64)
  • C++ MFC for latest build tools with Spectre Mitigations (x86 & x64)

The easiest way to install is to select "Individual components" and search for "spectre latest" (no quotation marks). Pick each option for the relevant CPU.

  1. Set up depot_tools.

depot_tools.zip must be downloaded and extracted to c:\src\depot_tools\.

:::note pass

This ZIP has a number of hidden files and folders (including .git) which should be extracted along with the normal files.

:::

Add the path c:\src\depot_tools\ to the User PATH environment variable

Environment Variable Setup (click to show)

Type env in the search bar and select "Edit the system environment variables".

In the new window, click the "Environment Variables..." button.

In the new window, look for the "User variables" section. Select "Path" in the list and click "Edit".

In the new window, click "New" and type c:\src\depot_tools and press Enter.

Select the row and repeatedly click "Move Up" until it is the first entry.

Click "OK" in each window (3 windows) and restart your computer.

  1. Delete c:\src\depot_tools\ninja if it exists, then download the official Windows release and move the ninja.exe into c:\src\depot_tools. If a ninja.exe exists in the folder, replace the existing program.

  2. Make a project directory:

mkdir sheetjs-hermes
cd sheetjs-hermes
  1. Clone the hermes-windows repo:
git clone https://github.com/microsoft/hermes-windows
cd hermes-windows
git checkout 240573e
cd ..

:::note pass

If there are errors related to SSL or certificates or CApath, temporarily disable SSL in Git:

git config --global http.sslVerify false
git clone https://github.com/microsoft/hermes-windows
git config --global http.sslVerify true

:::

  1. Build the library:
cd hermes-windows
.\.ado\scripts\cibuild.ps1 -AppPlatform win32 -Platform x64 -ToolsPlatform x64
cd ..

:::note pass

The script may fail with the message:

cannot be loaded because running scripts is disabled on this system

In a "Run as Administrator" powershell window, run the following command:

Set-ExecutionPolicy -ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned

:::

:::info pass

In some test runs, the command failed when trying to copy hermes.exe:

Copy-Item: C:\Users\Me\Documents\hermes-windows\.ado\scripts\cibuild.ps1:331
Line |
 331 |      Copy-Item "$compilerAndToolsBuildPath\bin\hermes.exe" -Destinatio …
     |      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
     | Cannot find path 'C:\Users\Me\Documents\hermes-windows\workspace\build\tools\bin\hermes.exe'
     | because it does not exist.

The libraries are built first and the standalone binary is not needed when embedding Hermes, so the error message can be safely ignored.

:::

  1. Copy every generated .lib and .dll file into the main folder:
dir -r -Path .\hermes-windows\workspace\build\win32-x64-debug\ -Filter "*.dll" | Copy-Item -Destination .\
dir -r -Path .\hermes-windows\workspace\build\win32-x64-debug\ -Filter "*.lib" | Copy-Item -Destination .\
  1. Download sheetjs-hermes.cpp:
curl -o sheetjs-hermesw.cpp https://docs.sheetjs.com/hermes/sheetjs-hermesw.cpp
  1. Build the application:
cl /MDd sheetjs-hermesw.cpp DbgHelp.lib *.lib /I hermes-windows\API /I hermes-windows\include /I hermes-windows\public\ /I hermes-windows\API\jsi

:::caution pass

If cl is not found, run the command in the "Native Tools Command Prompt"

:::

  1. Download the SheetJS Standalone script and the test file. Save both files in the project directory:

{\ curl -o xlsx.full.min.js https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-${current}/package/dist/xlsx.full.min.js curl -o pres.numbers https://sheetjs.com/pres.numbers}

  1. Run the application:
.\sheetjs-hermesw.exe pres.numbers

If successful, the program will print the library version number and the contents of the first sheet as CSV rows.

CLI Test

:::note Tested Deployments

This demo was tested in the following deployments:

Architecture Hermes Date
darwin-x64 0.12.0 2024-03-13

:::

Due to limitations of the standalone binary, this demo will encode a test file as a Base64 string and directly add it to an amalgamated script.

Install CLI

  1. Install the Hermes command line tools:
npx jsvu hermes@0.12.0

When prompted, select the appropriate operating system.

  1. Inspect the output of the installer. Look for "Installing binary" lines:
 Extracting…
// highlight-next-line
Installing binary to ~/.jsvu/engines/hermes-0.12.0/hermes-0.12.0…
Installing symlink at ~/.jsvu/bin/hermes-0.12.0 pointing to ~/.jsvu/engines/hermes-0.12.0/hermes-0.12.0…
Installing binary to ~/.jsvu/engines/hermes-0.12.0/hermes-0.12.0-compiler…
Installing symlink at ~/.jsvu/bin/hermes-0.12.0-compiler pointing to ~/.jsvu/engines/hermes-0.12.0/hermes-0.12.0-compiler…

The first "Installing binary" line mentions the path to the hermes tool.

Setup Project

  1. Create a new project folder:
mkdir sheetjs-hermes-cli
cd sheetjs-hermes-cli
  1. Copy the binary from Step 1 into the current folder. For example, on macOS:
cp ~/.jsvu/engines/hermes-0.12.0/hermes-0.12.0 .

Create Script

  1. Download the SheetJS Standalone script and the test file. Save both files in the project directory:

{\ curl -LO https://cdn.sheetjs.com/xlsx-${current}/package/dist/xlsx.full.min.js curl -LO https://sheetjs.com/pres.numbers}

  1. Bundle the test file and create payload.js:
node -e "fs.writeFileSync('payload.js', 'var payload = \"' + fs.readFileSync('pres.numbers').toString('base64') + '\";')"
  1. Create support scripts:
  • global.js creates a global variable and defines a fake console:
var global = (function(){ return this; }).call(null);
var console = { log: function(x) { print(x); } };
  • hermes.js will call XLSX.read and XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv:
var wb = XLSX.read(payload, {type:'base64'});
console.log(XLSX.utils.sheet_to_csv(wb.Sheets[wb.SheetNames[0]]));
  1. Create the amalgamation sheetjs.hermes.js:
cat global.js xlsx.full.min.js payload.js hermes.js > sheetjs.hermes.js

The final script defines global before loading the standalone library. Once ready, it will read the bundled test data and print the contents as CSV.

Testing

  1. Run the script using the Hermes standalone binary:
./hermes-0.12.0 sheetjs.hermes.js

If successful, the script will print CSV data from the test file.